Copyright 2014 Robert J. Meyers, Ph.D.
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Selected CRA Publications

Meyers, R. J., Smith, J. E., Serna, B., & Belon, K. E. (2013). Community reinforcement approaches: CRA and CRAFT. In P. Miller's (Ed.) Interventions for addiction: Comprehensive addictive behaviors and disorders, Academic Press: San Diego, CA.

Roozen, H.G., Meyers, R.J. & Smith J.E (2013). Community Reinforcement Approach: Klinische procedures voor de behandeling van alcohol- en drugverslaving. Utrecht: Bohn Stafleu & van Loghum [Dutch].

Godley, S.H., Meyers, R.J., Smith, J.E., Karvinen, T., Titus, J.C., Godley, M.D., Dent, G., Passetti, L., & Kelberg, P. (2011). The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4. DHHS Pub. No. 01-3489. Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Nederlandse bewerking door P.G.J. Greeven & H.G. Roozen. Vught: Novadic-Kentron [Dutch Version].

Pauline Hussaats, MSc, Hendrik Roozen, Ph.D., Robert J. Meyers Ph.D., Ben J. M. Vande Wetering, MD, (2011).  Problems areas reported by substance abusing individuals and their concerned significant others, American Journal of Addictions 2011:21:38-46.

Manuel, J. K., Austin, J. L., Miller, W. R., McCrady, B. S., Tonigan, J. S., Meyers, R. J., Smith, J. E., & Bogenschutz, M. P. (2012). Community reinforcement and family training: A pilot comparison of group and self-directed delivery. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 43, 129-136.

Godley, S. H., Garner, B. R., Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Godley, M. D. (2011).  A large-scale dissemination and implementation model for evidence-based treatment and continuing care. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 18, 67-83.

Meyers, R. J., Roozen, H. G., & Smith, J. E. (2011). The community reinforcement approach: An update of the evidence. Alcohol Research and Health, 33, 380-388.

Dutcher, L.W., Anderson, R., Moore, M., Luna-Anderson, C., Meyers, R.J., Delaney, H.D. & Smith J.E., (2009). The community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT) An effectiveness study. Journal of Behavioral Analysis in Health, Sports, Fitness and Medicine, Vol. 2, Spring, Number 1.
Smith, J.E., Campos-Melady, M. Meyers, R.J. (2009). Community reinforcement and Community reinforcement and family training. Journal of Behavioral Analysis in Health, Sports, Fitness and Medicine, Vol. 2, Spring, Number 1.
Roozen, H.G., Evans, B.E., Wiersema, H., & Meyers, R.J., (2009). The influence of extraversion on preferences and engagement in pleasant activities in patients with substance use disorders: One size fits all? Journal of Behavioral Analysis in Health, Sports, Fitness and Medicine, Vol. 2, Spring, Number 1.


Godley, S.H., Smith, J.E. Meyers, R.J., & Godley, M.D. (2009).  Adolescent community reinforcement approach (A-CRA).  In D.W. Springer, & A. Rubin (Eds.), Substance abuse treatment for youth and adults. John Wiley & Sons, Inc Hoboken New Jersey.

Smith, J.E., & Meyers, R.J. (2009).  Working with the family members of treatment-resistant substance abusers: What Independent Practitioners should know. Independent Practitioner, Summer, Volume 29, Number 3.

Roozen, H.G., Blaauw, E., & Meyers, R.J. (2009). Advances in Management of Alcohol Use Disorders and Intimate Partner Violence: Community Reinforcement and Family Training.  Psychiatry, Psychology and Law Vol. 16:1, Supplement, 2009, S74-S80.

Smith, J. E., & Meyers, R. J., (2009). Community reinforcement and family training. In G.L. Fisher & N.A. Roget's (Eds.), Encyclopedia of substance abuse prevention, treatment, and recovery. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Roozen, H.G., Wiersema, H., Strietman, M., Feij, J. A., Lewinsohn, P.M., Meyers, R.J., Koks, M. & Vingerhoets, J. J. (2008).  Development  and psychometric evaluation of the pleasant activities list. American Journal of Addictions, 17 (5): 422-435.

Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Austin, J. L. (2008). Working with family members to engage treatment-refusing drinkers: The CRAFT program. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 26, 169-193.

Smith, J.E. & Meyers, R.J. (2008). Kuinkamotivoida PÄHDEONGELMAINEN HOITOON Läheistenavulla.  [Motivating substance abusers to enter treatment: Working with family members].  Sumonentanut Oili Räsänen,  Myllyhoitoyhdistys ry. (Finland).

Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Austin, J. L. (2008). Working with family members to engage treatment-refusing drinkers: The CRAFT program. In O. J. Morgan & C. H. Litzke (Eds.), Family interventions in substance abuse. West Hazleton, PA: Haworth Press. (Co-published
simultaneously as Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, Volume 26, Number 1/2, 2008).

Meyers, R.J. & Gardin, J. (2007):  "How to Engage the Treatment Resistant Substance Abuser," Spotlight on Recovery Spring Issue, Part 1, Issue 12.

Meyers, R.J. & Smith, J.E. (2007):  "CRA-Manual zur Behandlung von Alkoholabhangigkeit [Clinical Guide to Alcohol Treatment: The Community Reinforcement Approach]." Psychiatrie-Verlag, Bonn. (Germany).

Meyers, R.J., (Author), & Yu, J. (Director) (2007): "Getting an Addict into Treatment: The CRAFT Approach" [television series episode].  In J. Hoffman & S. Froemke (Producers), The HBO Addiction Series; Why Can't They Stop?  HBO New York, New York.

Slesnick, N., Prestopnik, J.L., Meyers, R.J. & Glassman, M. (2007): "Treatment Outcome for Street-living, Homeless Youth," Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1237-1251.

Meyers, R.J. & Wolfe, B.L. (2006): "Rakkaasta Raitis: Vaihtoehtoja nalkuttamiselle, anelulle ja uhkailulle [Get Your Loved One Sober: Alternatives to nagging, pleading, and threatening]'" Kustantaja Suomessa Myllyhoitoyhdistys ry. (Finland).

Meyers, R. J., Austin, J. L., & Smith, J. E. (2006): "Enlisting Family Members to Address Treatment Refusal in Substance Abusers," Psychiatric Times, 23, 31-34.

Meyers, R.J., Smith, J.E., & Villanueva, M. (2005): "The Community Reinforcement Approach: History and Empirical Validation," Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, Volume 19, Number 3, Fall.

Meyers, R.J., Smith, J.E., & Lash, D.N. (2005):  "A Program for Engaging Treatment-Refusing Substance Abuser into Treatment: CRAFT", International Journal of Behavioral and Consultation Therapy, Volume 1, No. 2, Spring.

Scruggs, S.M., Meyers, R.J., & Kayo, R. (2005):  "Community Reinforcement and Family Training, Support and Prevention (CRAFT-SP)," Veterans Administration Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Manuel, J. K., Miller, W.R., Tonigan, J. S., & Meyers, R. J. (2005). The effect of different treatment interventions on the coping behaviors of concerned significant others. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(5, Supplement), 903. (Abstract).

Manuel, J. K., Miller, W. R., Meyers, R. J., & Tonigan, J. S. (2004). Perception of drinking by parental and spousal concerned significant others. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(5), (Supplement), 124. (Abstract).

Meyers, R.J., & Gardin, J. (2004). Empirically supported substance abuse treatment: The community reinforcement approach. (Available through San Francisco bay area center for cognitive therapy website www.therapyadvisor.com).

Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Miller, W. R. (2004). Take the network into treatment. Drug and Alcohol Findings, 10, 4-7.

Smith, J.E., Milford, J.L., & Meyers, R. J. (2004). CRA and CRAFT: Behavioral approaches to treating substance-abusing individuals. The Behavior Analyst Today, Vol. 5 (4), 391-403.

Meyers, R.J., Smith, J.E., & Lash, D. (2003). The Community Reinforcement Approach. In (Eds.) M. Galanter. Recent Developments in Alcoholism: Research on Alcoholism Vol. XVI. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.

Diamond, G., Godley, S.H., Liddle, H., Webb, C., Sampl, S., Tims, F., Meyers, R. (2002). Five outpatient models for adolescent marijuana use: A description of the Cannabis Youth Treatment interventions. Addiction, 97, 69-82.

Smith, J.E., Meyers, R.J., & Milford, J. (2002). The community reinforcement approach. In R. Hester & W. Miller's (Eds.) Handbook of alcoholism treatment approaches: Effective alternatives (3rd ed.), New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Godley, S. H., Meyers, R. J., Smith, J. E., Godley, M. D., Titus, J. M., Karvinen, T., Dent, G., Passetti, L., & Kelberg, P. (2001). The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4. DHHS Pub. No. 01-3489. Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Meyers, R.J. & Godley, M.D. (2001). Shaping of the Community Reinforcement Approach. In R. Meyers & W. Miller (Eds.). A Community Reinforcement approach to the treatment of addiction. Cambridge, UK: University Press.

Smith, J.E., Meyers, R.J., & Miller, W.R. (2001). The community reinforcement approach to the treatment of substance use disorders. The American Journal of Addictions Vol. 10 (suppl), 51-59.

Smith, J. E. & Meyers, R. J. (2000). CRA: The community reinforcement approach for treating alcohol problems. In M. Dougher (Ed), Clinical behavioral analysis: Research and theory. Context Press.

Meyers, R.J., Smith, J.E., & Waldorf, V.A. (1999). Application of the community reinforcement approach. In E. Dowd & L. Rugle (Eds.), Comparative treatments of substance abuse. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Miller, W.R. & Meyers, R.J. (1999). The Community Reinforcement Approach. Alcohol Research and Health, 23, 2, 116-121.

Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Waldorf, V.A. (1999). Covering all bases: Engaging and treating individuals with alcohol problems. In J. Hannigan, N. Spear, L. Spear, & C. Goodlett (Eds.), Alcohol and alcoholism: Brain and development. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum associates.

Wolfe, B. L., & Meyers, R. J. (1999). Cost-effective alcohol treatment: The community reinforcement approach. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 6, 105-109.

Smith, J.E., Meyers, R.J. & Delaney, H. D. (1998). The community reinforcement approach with homeless alcohol-dependent individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol. 66, No3, 541-548.

Smith, J. E. & Meyers, R. J. (1995). The community reinforcement approach. In R. Hester & W. Miller's (Eds.) Handbook of alcoholism treatment approaches: Effective alternatives (2nd ed.), New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Azrin, N. H., Sisson, R. W., Meyers, R. J., & Godley, M. D. (1982). Alcoholism treatment by disulfiram and community reinforcement therapy. Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13, 105-112.

Mallams, J. H., Godley, M. D., Hall, G. M., Meyers, R. J. (1982). A social systems approach to resocializing alcoholics in the community. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 1115-1123.

Selected CRAFT Publications


Meyers, R.J., Smith, J.E., & Lash, D.N. (2005). A program for engaging treatment-refusing substance abuser into treatment: CRAFT. International Journal of Behavioral and Consultation Therapy, Volume 1, No. 2, Spring.

Meyers, R.J., & Gardin, J. (2004). Empirically supported substance abuse treatment: The community reinforcement approach. (Available through San Francisco bay area center for cognitive therapy website www.therapyadvisor.com).

Pinsky, D., Seppala, M.D., Meyers, R.J., Gardin, J, White, W.L., & Brown, S. (2004). When painkillers become dangerous: What everyone needs to know about oxycontin and other prescription drugs? Hazelden Publishing & Educational Services, Center City MN.

Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Miller, W. R. (2004). Take the network into treatment. Drug and Alcohol Findings, 10, 4-7.

Smith, J.E., Milford, J.L., & Meyers, R. J. (2004). CRA and CRAFT: Behavioral approaches to treating substance-abusing individuals. The Behavior Analyst Today, Vol. 5 (4), 391-403.

Wolfe, B.L., & Meyers, R.J. (2004) Community Reinforcement and Family Training: Getting Loved Ones Sober. The Counselor Publication of the National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors, Vol. 5, No. 3, 57-60.

Meyers, R.J., Miller, W.R., Smith, J.E., & Tonigan, J.S. (2002). A randomized trial of two methods for engaging treatment-refusing drug users through concerned significant others. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol .70, No. 5, 1182-1185.

Smith, J.E., Meyers, R.J., & Milford, J. (2002). The community reinforcement approach. In R. Hester & W. Miller's (Eds.) Handbook of alcoholism treatment approaches: Effective alternatives (3nd ed.), New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Meyers, R.J. Miller, W.R. & Smith J.E. (2001). Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT). In R. Meyers & W. Miller (Eds.). A Community Reinforcement approach to the treatment of addiction. Cambridge, UK: University Press.

Kirby, K. C., Marlowe, D. B., Festinger, D. S., Garvey, K. A., & LaMonaca, V. (1999). Community reinforcement training for family and significant others of drug abusers: A unilateral intervention to increase treatment entry of drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 56, 85-96.

Meyers, R. J., Miller, W.R., Hill, D. E., & Tonigan, J. S. (1999). Community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT): Engaging unmotivated drug users in treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse, 10, 3, 291-308.

Miller, W.R., Meyers, R.J., & Tonigan J.S. (1999). Engaging the unmotivated in treatment for alcohol problems: A comparison of three intervention strategies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 5, 688-697.

Meyers, R. J., Smith, J. E., & Miller E.J., (1998). Working through the concerned significant other: Community reinforcement and family training. In W.R. Miller & N. Heather (Eds.), Treating addictive behaviors: Processes of change (2nd edition). New York: Plenum Press.

Meyers, R. J. & Wolfe, B.L. (1998). Community reinforcement and family training for families of substance abusers: Everybody can win. The Counselor. November/December, 24-29.

Meyers, R. J. & Wolfe, B.L. (1998). Helping employees help their substance abusing loved ones. EAP Digest, March/April, 12-13.

Meyers, R. J. & Smith, J. E. (1997). Getting off the fence: Procedures to engage treatment resistant drinkers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 14, 467-472.

Meyers, R. J., Dominguez, T. & Smith, J. E. (1996). Community reinforcement training with concerned others. In V. B. Hasselt & M. Hersen's (Eds.) Source of psychological treatment manuals for adult disorders. New York: Plenum Press.

Meyers, R. J., Hill, D. E., Miller, E. J., Lopez, V. C., & Miller W. R., (November, 1996). Engaging and retaining resistant drug users in treatment: The community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT). Proceedings of the 30th Annual Convention of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, 388. Washington, D.C. (Abstract).

Sisson, R. W., & Mallams, J. H. (1981). The use of systematic encouragement and community access procedures to increase attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous and Al-Anon meetings. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 8, 371-376.
Dr. Meyers, Dr. Smith, Dr. Azrin, and Dr. Besalel attend the 2004 AABT conference in New Orleans
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